NOT TRUE history of Chen La , or Fu Nan .
I would say this is a pretty concise and get the point history of
Cambodia. It is important to learn our root, identify our soul and
discover our values. At the same time, it is very critical for us to move
on and don't let our nostalgia hamper our progress. Thanks for sharing.
Cambodia, in the past (I-VI° century), was called Fou-Nan (Nokor Phnom),
means kingdom of mountain, which the title royal in Sanskrit of dynasty of
"Çailaraja or Parvatabhuala" (King of mountain). Her zone geography spread
out from the sea of China untill the sea of Bengal, passing by the actual
golf Siam, the north up to region Champasak (present low Laos), and the
east up to border of Champa (the map of Fou-Nan) Her capital "Vyadhapura"
was situated between Bar Phnom and the Mekong
Khmer former history from inscription and China°s rapports (source
G.Coedes, André.Migo and many others ... (Note* Possible eventual error
techical, Translation from French doc. by tool. Any help would be
The Fou-Nan or Nokor Phnom
The expansion of Indian civilization outside India goes up probably even
at the time pre-Aryan. In addition, it is known that at the time of the
council Buddhic of Pâtaliputra, joined together towards 242 before our
era, the Açoka emperor would have sent missionaries to preach the good law
in various regions of the east of which Ceylon and the kingdom
Souvarnabhoumî, the " Chersonèse of gold " of the Greeks, generally
identified with current Burma (old kingdom môn of Dvâravati or Haribunjay.
This expansion of the culture out of the hearth of India was significant
and probably due to the theory Buddha which removes the concept of caste,
contrary to the Brahmanism, which prevents their religion from crossing
the seas under penalty of losing their castes. The transmission of Indian
civilization various, was varied and somewhat indirect. One of most
significant was certainly due to intense economic exchanges will intra and
extra continental. Great empires had been created: in India Maurya and
Koushana in Iran, Seleucids in the Mediterranean basin, the Roman empire
These empires were rich and powerful, and the contact established between
them following the campaigns of Alexander had given rise to significant
trade mainly the " products of luxury " intended for the court whose
Mediterranean world was avid.
For the navigators come from India, the countries of the South Asia east
represented as the true Eldorado (especially the kingdom of Fou-nan) The
populations were soft, accessible and extravagant many were the tradesmen
who sensitive to the charm of these regions,installed their counters
there. Some brought their family; others married with the women the
notable and were integrated little by little into the country. This
penetration, perfectly peaceful and friendly, was done without any
preconceived plan, without being possible to speak as an colonization...
The Hindus are cultivated people, honest, and simple, they bring to the
natives the elements significant, corresponding and compatible with the
ambition and the sensitivity of the autochthones (Khmer) integration that
it is human or spiritual was an immense success in the history of Khmer
The sovereign Kaundinya and Neang Nagî Sôma.
According to inscriptions found in Meson (Champa) and Prah-Inkoasy, we
notes that, at the first century our era, the Fou-nan was been reigned by
an Indian king, named Kaundinya (the Chinese called Houen p'an houng, the
Khmers called Prah Thorng). He was of origin Brahman, come from India
(Kaundinya is the title of the Kushâna clan, dominating in the North-West
of India) The founder legend of the Khmer's kingdom, said " One day, Prah
Thorng ventured along the length of the sea and arrived at Koathlok where
inhabitants of this area, ordered by the queen Nagî or Live Yi (name given
by the Chinese historians, which means sheet of willows) tried to plunder
his ships. But the king and his companions have beaten the autochthones.
Astounded by the beauty of Nagî, the king Kaundinya fallen passionately in
love with her, so he requested her hand from her father, the chef Naga,
king of the natives (Naga or Bangkuy) The king Naga was proud of the young
man, accepted at one to marry him to his daughter. After the marriage the
name of Nagî Somâ " This marriage of mythical origin took is similar to
that whose resulting kings Pallava de Kanchi in Southern India claimed
Together, they built the empire of Nokor " Phnom " in dialect môn-Khmer
means Bnam "mountain" which finds in Sanskrit the title dynastic of
çailaräja or parvatabhuäla "king of the mountain" recognized on the name
of "Fou-nan " by the Chinese historians. The capital of this kingdom
called "Vyadhapura" "city of the hunter", located between Mekong, near
Sruk Ba-nam and Ba-phnom (Kampong-Thom) "As dowry, his father-in-law, king
Naga, would have created a kingdom to him by drinking all the water which
covered the Fou-nan (Nokor Phnom)
According to the assumption of the several historians, Nokor Phnom or
Founan would have started at the beginning of the first century, at the
time where this area would have been invaded by the Indo-Aryan or
Indo-Scythes who extended their domination on Ghent and continued their
domination a little everywhere in Asia of South-east. They overcame the
autochthones (Nagas) or the natives themselves elected them as king. The
opinions are shared besides on the remote origin of this legendary topic,
which one makes come either from the occident, or of the maritime areas of
the Southeast Asia. At all events, the couple Kaundinya-Somâ gave rise to
a line, which reigned then on the Cambodia.
Several significant habits left by their union, are still practised in
current Kampuchea, as the habit do at the time of the celebration of
engagement, of marriage or even of birth and death. This practice is
strongly marked even, in the unconscious one of each Cambodia.
In a procedure of the marriage, the habit wants that the man holds Sbei
Neang Naga and follows her to go to her kingdom (her room) The man must
bring his richness, his gifts, his goodness to the girl whom he will
marry. As Prah Thong at the time where he meet with Neang Naga, he has
followed her to meet her father (the king Naga) Prah Thong gave very to
Neang Naga, his richness, his goods, his knowledge, and made of Founan a
civilized kingdom, powerful and rich, it is what the majority of the
Cambodian's men do to the woman that they will marry to.
Another costume that the Kampuchean ones practise preciously in the
ceremony of death, it is the flag. This flag in the shape of crocodile,
which one puts in front the house of the death. This flag represents the
soul of the Khmer people, the great, powerful Prah Thong, the father of
the fathers of Cambodian.
Since, all the traditions, the habits, the philosophical ideology,
education, and the structures of institutions and development are done on
the basis of religion of Brahmanism.
Thus was marked the bottom and the Khmer beginning of civilization, the
most powerful age of South-eastern Asia of the time.
Descendants of the dynasty Kaundinya and Neang Nagâ Somâ
The information collected concerning their descendants is very fuzzy. The
documents in our provision do not enable us to define with exactitude
their existence. The only information available until now was of Chinese
source. This information goes up about the third century, therefore all
the names of these downward kings were changed into Chinese names by the
The sovereign Hun Phan Houng
He was the son of Kaundinya sovereign. He reigned after his father. At
that time the Fou-nan was divided into seven small principalities,
therefore each vassal claims its own independence, but this powerful
sovereign has beat them and placed a member of his family to control in
each one of principality.
The sovereign Fan Fan (Pan p'an)
He was the second son of Fan Phan Houng. He reigned after the death of his
father, but he was a lazy king, but he had a powerful chef-armed who
helped him to direct and to solve the problems of the kingdom. His reign
lasted only three years
The sovereign Fan Man or Fan Che man = çri mara (general)
Its arrival on the throne of Fou-nan displeased to all the vassal kings,
therefore he was obliged to show them his power and his capacity to
dominate them all.
He was a great warrior, bold and powerful. His reign is marked by the
power maritime and territorial (he controlled all the water supply
networks, manufacturing large boats, being able to transport 700 people)
According to G Coedès he would have died on mission at the border of gold
of Kin-Flax (low Burma or Malayan peninsula) His nephew Fan Tchan had
benefited the occasion to get rid of his legitimate son, Kin-Cheng and
usurped to the power.
The Sovereign Fan TChan or Thorninvarman
As of his arrival on the throne, he ordered to eliminate all the
applicants' kings of the family Fan man, but a son of Fan-man survived
from this massacre. As of the adulthood, he returned at once to Fou-nan to
be avenged for his father. A successful revenge, but without result
because, later he was assassinated by a General of Fan Tchan, the General
Fan Siv Hong = asajaya. After having disencumbered all the princes
applicants, Fan Siv Hong declared himself king of Fou nan. These events
occurred between years 225 and 250.
During his reign, Fan Tchan had bound the first friendly relation with
India and China. The embassy sent by Fan Tchan (one of his parents) little
after 225, arrived at the mouth of Gange, that he went up to the capital
of a prince of the dynasty of Murunda (dynastic Title of the kouchans,
Kushânas), in return Murundais offered as the present four horses coming
from the country of Indo-Scythes.
The embassy sent in China into 243 offered to the emperor products and
musicians, for him an office was installed the following year close to
Nankin. The Chinese mission come to Fou-nan between 245 and 250, found on
the throne a usurper, Fan Siun or Fan Si Hong, and met at the Court an
envoy of Murundas. This first Chinese mission brought back interesting
information on the Fou-nan where they found cities walled, palates and
dwelling houses: "The inhabitants are ugly and black all with curly hair,
naked and naked-feet, devoting themselves to agriculture, and magnet to
engrave ornaments and to engrave. Many the utensils of which they are used
for to eat are out of money. The tax is paid in gold, money, pearls,
perfume. They have books and deposits of files whose characters of writing
resemble those of Hou ", It means as those of people of Central Asia which
employs a writing of Indian origin (extracted of the book "the people of
the Indochina peninsula of G.Coedés)
The Fan sovereign Si Hong
The chef armed with Fan Tchan became king of Fou-nan after having
eliminated the second son of Fan Man. In year 240, he received two Chinese
representatives Sunphan and envoy in his turn two representatives of the
Fou--nan to China, into 268 and 287. According to the witness of the
Chinese historians, the reign of the Kaundinya and Naga Somâ dynasty would
have lasted for two centuries whose kings mentioned previously are all
Second Indianisé (357 J.C)
After the reign of Fan If Hong or Asahaya, the succession of Fou-nan is
somewhat fuzzy, for lack of document. No source available to date enabled
us to clear up or evaluate the exact circumstances of this time.
The three embassies of Fou-nan in China in 285 J.C to 288 J.C were perhaps
a consequence of the recrudescence of the maritime trade, after 280 J.C,
date of the reunification of China by Tsin which caused a request
increased for the products of luxury intended for the Court.
According to G.Coedès, at about 357 J.C, because of a new disorder in
India, Founan would have been invaded and begun again by a king
indo-scythe, under the name of Tchan-D'an or Chandan (royal title of
Indo-Scythe, pertaining to the dynasty of Koushana which had just died out
in India), which seems to indicate an Iranian origin, probably Kouchane.
Certain epigraphy of Angkor related about these events, therefore he was
of class Brahman come from India, just like the first king Kaundinya.
After crowning, he took the name of Kaundiyavarman. He always reigned in
"Vyadhapura" At the same time, in Borneo and Java the small kingdoms
hindouized were born.
At that time, the mobility and displacements of the populations are
important and the exchanges economic made between the inhabitants of
Founan and the people come from the world whole with Oc Eo in particular
with Européens coming from Rome and the Mediterranean, but also from China
and the Indians, etc
The Kaundinyavarman sovereign
He became king de Founan as of his arrival at Fou-nan. He took a nickname"
Varman ", he thus became Kaundiyavarman. He was a peaceful king, generous
and powerful, he had much compassion towards his people. He was also a
fervent of Brahmanism, in which he is originating, respecting Çiva.
In his reign the people lived peacefully and easily. All the costumes,
institution and education were based only on the religion of Brahmanism,
which became by the king, the official religion of Fou-nan. But in spite
of this dominant influence, the religion Buddhism (Mahayana) and the other
faith cohabit harmoniously with the Hindus.
King Kaundiyavarman asked a king of India, from which it resulted, to send
his some scientists to him who would help it to develop the empire Founan
or Nokor Phnom
Descendants of the dynasty of Kaundinyavarman
The sovereign Srey Indravarman
He was the son of Kaundinyavarman. He restored the diplomatic relation
with China. In 434, 435, and 438, it had sent its representative in China,
reigning by the Song family. At that time China was in conflict with
Champa (dispute for Ton-kin)
The sovereign Kaundinya Jayavarman (JC 480-514)
He was the son of Srey Indravarman. He continued the policy of his father
with the China. The Chinese sovereign has nominated him "the General of
the pacified South, king of Fou-nan" Being a Hindu Kaundinya Jayavarman
practised the worship of god "Maheçvara" (Çiva), god who goes down
unceasingly on the mount-Word-tan, materialized in "Linga", " Çiva giriça
In 484 the Fou-nan was in conflict with Champa, so the sovereign had sent
a Buddhist representative, Nakasène to China, to require for assistance
fro the Chinese king, but this one refused. At 492, the war with Champa
ended, after the assassination of this one by another sovereign of Champa.
The sovereign is a king hard-working, troubling about the development of
his kingdom. He arranged the flooded area (Kampuchea Krome or Cochinchina,
current southern Vietnam), to develop the new villages and cultivated
grounds over a territory of 200 km length. At that time the Buddhism was
in extended, therefore the king had sent in China two representatives, Mun
Séna and the Bal monk to translate Sanskrit.
Kaundinya Jayavarman was diet about 514 J.C. The Chinese give some
information on the civilization of Fou-nan at that time. They note about
the practice of the slavery, supplied with forwarding against the next
cities, the trade of gold, the money, of the silk trade, the manufacture
of rings, gold bracelets and silver crockery.
They note that the king lives in a house on floor, and that the people
live in elevated dwellings covered with sheets of a "large bamboo pushing
at the seaside". They saw boats long from 80 to 90 feet and broad from 6
to 7 feet, who's before and the back are like the head and the tail of a
fish. They still say that the king moves with elephant, that the
distractions of the people consist of pig and cockfights, and that in the
event of lawsuit one has recourse to the orderlies: " they throw in the
ebullient water of the gold rings and the eggs which should be withdrawn;
or they heat with the red a chain which one must carry on the hands during
seven steps; the hands of the culprit are completely skinned; the innocent
one is not wounded; or, one makes them plunge in water; that which is
right enters water, but does not insert and that which is wrong inserts ".
Another text adds these details: "Where they live, they do not dig a well.
By several tens of families they have a basin in common where they draw
Their habit is to adore the geniuses of the sky. Of these geniuses, they
make bronze images. Those, which have two faces, have four arms; those,
which have four faces, have eight arms; each hand holds something,
sometimes a child, sometimes a bird or a quadruped, or the sun, the
moon... When the king sits down, his squats side, raising the right knee,
drops the left knee to ground. One extends in front of him a cotton fabric
on whom one deposits mud of gold and burn-perfumes. In the event of
mourning, the habit is to shave the beard and the hair. For deaths, there
are four kinds of funeral: by water, by throwing the corpse with the
current of a river; by fire, by reducing it in ashes; by the ground, by
burying it in a pit; by the birds, by giving up it in the countryside.
With this information, of which several (houses raised on pile, orderlies,
common basin " trapeang ", use to shave at the time of a mourning) still
apply to Kampuchean modern (account of the book " populates peninsula
Indochina " of G.Coedès)
The Rudravarman sovereign
This king was the son of king Jayavarman, but as his mother was only one
concubine of the king, he was not supposed being crowned by the tradition!
But the thirst of the power being able brought him to kill his
half-brother, the true heir, prince Gunavarman. Traumatisé by this fact,
the mother of Gunavarman, the queen Kolab Rothavatey took refuge in the
forest to sanctify itself.
Rudravarman continued the diplomatic relation with China. But from now on,
because his moved behaviour, his thirst f power, the entire kingdom fell
into full civil war. Later, he was disappeared, but everything was
confused. So, the Fou-nan was reconquered by the family of prince
King Rudravarman was the last known king of Fou-nan. At that time Fou-nan
has a great international port at Okéa (current golf Thailand) The
exchanges economic were significant and intense, between the inhabitants
of Fou-nan and people coming from other countries as: the Chinese, the
Indians (current Indonesia, Malaysia), and certain Europeans of Rome and
the Mediterranean (one found the statue of Antoine under the sea of Okéa,
and a plug of Sanskrit... etc)
Fou-nan, which was during five centuries the dominant power on the
Indochina peninsula, preserved a long time a great prestige in the memory
of the following generations. The kings of pre-angkorien will adopt his
dynastic legend and those, which will reign at Angkor, will attach their
origin to the supreme kings of Vyàdhapura. Towards beginning of V° with
the VI° century as long as China knows disorders, the Fou-nan was
prosperous. Its king carries double title, those of "king of the mountain
" and " universal monarch ".
The civilization of the Fou-nan, on which one would like more abundantly
to be documented, and of which it should be hoped that excavations in the
many sites would bring more formations necessary buckling information
collected. However these people which fascinated us by his glorious
mystics that as much as his sudden disappearance, which one hopes well to
After the conquest of the throne of Fou-nan by the family prince
Gunavarman, the civil war was still very animated, and successive. The
annexed countries profited this instability of the Founan policy to
release itself. Between them, was Kambuja.
As of in the medium of the VI° century, Fou-Nan is supplanted because its
ex vassal of the south, Kambuja or Tchenla. At the same time two new
powers appear in the west of the Indochina peninsula: is Môn in the basin
of Ménam, cradle of the kingdom of Dvâravati, the other is Pyu in the
valley of Irawadi.
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